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The ultimate guide to FAQ: Application field of water pump
Previously we have given you useful information on everything you need to know about electric water pumps.
Now it’s time to discuss the field of application of each pump.
This guide will be devoted to information that can help you to know where you can apply each pump and why it is best suited for that application.
Here are the different application areas that we will be covered in this guide:
- Basement drainage
Then let’s discover the different types of water pumps used in each area.
1- What types of water pumps will be useful in the home and garden?
Modern water pumps will effectively replace the water supply and sewage systems.
They will provide drinking water to the home, bring a high-pressure stream of it to the bath, and remove even larger waste from home toilets.
Garden pumps will draw water for watering plants from natural reservoirs, and combustion pumps will be a good solution in places without electricity.
Choosing the right water pump model can make you dizzy.
So we’re going to suggest what to look for when choosing a submersible pump, a septic tank pump, and a surface pump for the garden.
Submersible pumps deliver water to homes that can be used in the kitchen and for bathing and washing.
They work submerged underwater.
They have a characteristic, slender shape, small diameter, and are quieter than hydrophore pumps.
They are intended primarily for the extraction of clean water from narrow deep wells for domestic purposes, as well as for irrigation of gardens and plots.
They can pump water up to several dozen meters.
By using them, you can place the bathroom anywhere – on the ground floor or upstairs.
Just remember to choose the parameters of the submersible pump to the needs of the household and the conditions in which it will be installed.
How to choose a submersible pump?
The standard diameter of deep wells is from 90 to 225 mm.
A well with a diameter of 100 to 125 mm will be sufficient for a single-family house.
For the needs of the farm, it will be necessary to drill a minimum hole of 225 mm.
Pumps for a deep well must not be “butt joint”.
It should freely enter the drilled tunnel so that the device does not get stuck or get stuck in a too narrow corridor.
In a 90mm well, a 3” (approximately 75mm) diameter submersible pump can therefore be mounted and a 4” (110mm) pump will be ideal for a 125mm water intake.
The size of the borehole and pump is selected according to the desired capacity and water pressure.
When choosing a pump, take into account how many people live in the house, how big the garden is, and whether you will be using sprinklers.
The depth of the water table, the distance of the water point from the house, the height of the riser, and the required pressure are also important.
Too strong a submersible pump will empty the well too quickly, and too weak a submersible pump will give the water pressure too low.
How to use a submersible pump?
Submersible pumps are available with full power cables or with led out cables approximately one meter long.
In the second case, before using the pump, you must tightly connect the cable with the electric cable, which is adapted to work in water.
Blue PE pipes and heavy-duty PE couplings are best for draining water. Some submersible pumps come bundled with a control box for installation in the home.
This makes it easier to manage the device – quick shutdown in the event of overload or when the water table drops too low.
There are also models whose engine has thermal protection against overheating.
Cesspool pumps with a grinder
The sewage we produce at home is organic and inorganic substances that are floating in the water.
Toilet paper, hair, food scraps, cleaning and washing agents, and cosmetics end up in our sewage system.
Deliberately or inadvertently, larger waste flows into them, which should not end up there.
Often these are feminine hygiene items, peelings, larger pieces of vegetables and fruit, bones, or toilet cloths.
The domestic sewage system has to deal with them. So let it work efficiently and without failure.
Which septic tank pumps to buy?
Cesspool pumps with a grinder pump even larger organic pollutants.
They have a built-in cutting system that grinds larger and harder components of domestic sewage.
In this way, these devices prevent clogging of the home treatment plant and efficiently pump their contents.
Most septic tank pumps operate intermittently.
Some models, however, are adapted to continuous operation for several days.
A dirty water pump that is equipped with a macerator, with a reinforced winding and an extended operating time, will be very useful in situations of prolonged overfilling of the septic tank.
Caustic substances can get into the waste discharged from the house and damage pumps made of less durable materials.
So it is worth buying a pump for a septic tank with cast iron housing, which is resistant to acids.
Additional protection of the device is a float that switches it off when working in an empty tank.
Garden pumps (surface)
Surface pumps are widely used in the garden.
They pump water from wells, natural and artificial reservoirs, remove excess rainwater.
The water pumped in this way can be used for watering with a hose, supplying garden sprinklers, washing the car, and also when parked with a motor home or caravan.
Garden pumps with a throughput of up to 60 liters per minute (3600 l / h) are sufficient for this application.
The limitation in the operation of surface pumps is the maximum suction lift.
The depth at which the water will be taken must not exceed 7-8 meters below the ground level.
If the water level drops below this limit while pumping, the pump may be damaged.
There are already models on the market that have a system that prevents failure in the event of a lack of water.
For example, an automatic garden pump that will turn itself off when the water supply is empty.
Garden pump – which is the best?
When buying a garden pump, pay attention to the head of the water and the capacity.
If you mainly focus on watering your garden with a hose, then focus on maximum pumping height.
The higher the value is, the faster you will water your plants.
A large water flow will allow more liquid to be thrown out at the same time and deliver it to the extensive garden sprinkler system.
So think about how many devices you will be supplying water to, and calculate how much water will be needed for each sprinkler.
Garden surface pumps are compact and have a handle for easy transport.
So you can use the pump as a stationary device or move it to the desired places.
The relatively small size of garden pumps makes them easy to integrate into the surroundings.
2- Which water pump to choose for the irrigation of the garden?
Now you have tomatoes, cucumbers, carrots, potatoes, and other vegetables on your site.
So you plan to start gardening and to be successful, you need to set up an irrigation system.
The most important component of the site is the water pump.
It’s a difficult task, but you can do it on your own.
To determine the type of water pump you should apply in this area, you should consider the most important parameters: operating principle, design features, technical specifications, and purpose of the model.
In this topic, we will discover 3 types of electric water pumps better adapted to irrigation.
What to be careful about to better recognize the type of pump suitable for the irrigation?
The types of placement of pumps concerning the water tank are different, so the devices are surface and submersible.
Surface pumps are installed next to a reservoir or water supply structure.
They are cheaper, and a tank depth of about 80 cm is sufficient for their operation.
Submersible models are designed to work in water, and the depth of the tank must be at least one meter.
I believe that surface pumps are the optimal solution for irrigation.
They cope with their task, even if they take water from a natural reservoir.
They can be easily moved to another location or dismantled for storage for the winter.
It is an effective and economical solution for occasional trips to the country.
A surface pump will be able to lift water from a small well, the depth of which does not exceed 9 meters, but it does not need to be lowered to the bottom.
The device can be mounted on gravel ground so that the free-flowing surface absorbs excess moisture and protects the device from damage.
It is important to shelter the surface pump from rain, snow, and strong winds.
The device will make noise during operation.
To install the device on the surface of the reservoir, you need a special floating platform.
What is the operating principle of irrigation pumps?
Before choosing a specific model, you should understand the principle of operation of water-lifting equipment, which is similar to electric pumps.
The pumps are powered by an electric motor: turning it on creates a vacuum inside the device body.
From low pressure, water begins to flow into the vacuum chamber and then enters the pipeline or hose.
It leaves the pump already under high pressure – the higher the level, the more powerful.
The design features of the pumps are that they create a vacuum in the housing in different ways.
Devices are divided into three groups: centrifugal, vortex, and vibratory, or, as they are often called, electromagnetic.
What are the types of pumps to choose for long term versatility?
Centrifugal pumps are considered universal: they are convenient to be used both in everyday life and production.
During operation, the device creates a centrifugal force inside the body – it provides a water supply.
The blades of the wheel rotate, capture the liquid, and it is pressed against the walls and enters the outlet.
Centrifugal pumps are made of high-strength materials, so the devices serve for a long time, and the parts in them hardly wear out.
They work efficiently and without interruption in any conditions, even at extremely high temperatures – some models can withstand up to 350 ° C.
Centrifugal pumps differ in price, but inexpensive models are suitable for a home or summer cottage.
They are easy to maintain and you can even install additional automation tools if you want to improve the device.
There are also disadvantages: I did not like that, to start a centrifugal pump, you need to fill the case with water.
Centrifugal models are both surface and submersible.
The formers are easier and faster to install, but they cannot work with deep wells or boreholes.
Semi-submersible and submersible models are easier to maintain, better suited for wells, but much more difficult to install and more expensive.
What are the types of pumps to choose to pump contaminated water?
For pumping contaminated water, the vibrating pump is better suited.
The following will tell us more about the basic reasons why this type of pump is useful.
The main advantage of vibrating pumps is the ability to pump water with sand particles and other dirt.
This is useful to pump out a well or even a well that has not been used for a long time.
The pump works under the influence of an electromagnetic field – it is created by a coil that draws in a metal core with a flexible diagram.
The bending diagram creates a low pressure that raises the water.
When the diagram returns to its original place, the pressure rises: a valve is triggered, which closes the inlet opening, as a result, the water is pushed out.
The diagram is constantly moving, so the water flows without interruption.
Vibrating pumps are the most inexpensive, compact, and simple.
They do not require complex maintenance or replacement of parts. I like the fact that the garden is watered with magnetized water – this helps to increase yields.
The device vibrates; therefore it is important not to place it near the building foundation.
Over time, the pump’s performance will noticeably decrease – it will still cope with the procedure for cleaning hydraulic structures, but the pressure will become worse.
What are the types of pumps to choose for powerful water pressure?
If you wish to have high water pressure in your garden then the vortex pump would be better for you.
Find out more about the reasons for this affirmation later on.
The main advantage of vortex pumps is a powerful water flow.
They are suitable for the water supply of small residential buildings, automatic irrigation systems, small air conditioning systems, and auxiliary equipment.
The work takes place due to the wheel: its blades create centrifugal force and the water spins in a spiral, like a vortex. The mechanism fits in a compact and lightweight body.
If we compare two models of a vortex and centrifugal pumps with similar characteristics, it should be noted that vortex produces a flow of water much more powerful – this is useful for irrigation systems for gardens or vegetable gardens of large areas.
Vortex pumps are sensitive to sand particles in the water: if the liquid is dirty, the pump may be interrupted or simply break.
The efficiency is lower than that of centrifugal.
3- What type of water pump is best suited for agriculture?
In many cases, it is necessary to use a pump to power the irrigation system, such as when we can draw water from a well, or we have a rainwater recovery tank, thus avoiding the use of water in the aqueduct.
The help of a pump is necessary even when the performance of the aqueduct is insufficient for our system.
On this page, you will find much useful information on how to correctly size the pump for your irrigation system, how to read the technical data sheet and understand its real performance, how to calculate power, flow rate, and head that you will need to correctly choose the pump model for your plant.
How do I read the performance data to find out which type of pump is best for my farm site?
Well, first we need to know some simple concepts to understand how a pump works and how to read the performance data.
The pump nameplate data shows
- Power expressed in KW and HP horses
- Maximum flow rate Q (l / min) expressed in liters per minute
- Maximum head Hmax (m) expressed in meters
- Motor supply voltage V230 – V380
- Current A expressed in Amper
- Hz frequency expressed in Herz
However, the data on the pump nameplate is not enough to identify the pump performance. These data indicate only the values of the electric motor, the maximum flow rate, and the maximum head.
To determine the hydraulic performance of the pump for our irrigation system we focus on the flow rate and the head and try to explain what these two values tell us and what they are for.
How do I know the flow rate indicated by the volume of water?
The flow rate indicates the volume of water that is moved in a given time.
This value is generally expressed in Liters per Minute (l / min) or Metricubes per Hour (mc / h), this means, 1 mc / h = 16.67 l / min, the flow rate value tells us how much water we will have at our disposal to feed our agricultural field.
If we make a relationship between the flow rate and the section of the pipe, we obtain the speed, usually expressed in meters per second, the greater the speed of the water inside the pipe and the greater the pressure drops, for this reason, we will have to adjust the section of the pipe according to the flow rate and keep it below 3.5 m / sec.
How do I know the pressure?
The term pressure identifies a force that acts perpendicularly on a surface, this force generates pressure to the area on which it weighs, force/area, kg/cm 2, or new ton / square meter (N / m 2 ), the result of these ratios gives us the pressure value.
That said, when we read the performance sheet of our pump, the pressure is indicated in mca (meters of water column), and one bar of pressure corresponds to 10 meters of the water column, as you can see.
The pressure we can imagine as the force generated at the base of the tube. For the choice of the pump, the pressure makes us understand up to what height the pump can raise the water.
But what is the difference between mca, bars, and atmospheres? For the sake of clarity, 1 bar = 0.9869 atm and 1 bar = 10 mca.
What is the prevalence?
We could simply translate the term “Prevalence” into “Pressure” but it is not exactly like that, or rather the concept of prevalence is a bit different.
The head is the height difference expressed in meters between the upper level of the water sucked by the pump and the upper level of the pumped water.
In the case of the submersible pump, the head is the difference in height between the water level in the tank and the outlet level of the pipe.
In the example of the surface pump, the head is the sum of the suction depth + the lifting height up to the exit of the pipe.
An example that explains the meaning of the head of a pump
Now that we have clarified the meaning of flow rate and head, to choose the most suitable pump for our agricultural irrigation system we must read the technical data sheet of the pump where we will find the performance curves.
These tables show us the real performance of the pump.
Pump hydraulic performance curve
Take for example the submersible pump E-Tech mod.ES 5/4 and look at the performance curve.
We have highlighted the performance point that we believe is optimal for our irrigation system,
assuming that our pump is placed in a tank for the recovery of rainwater, at a depth of 2.5 meters, we will have a flow rate of 66 l / min with a head of 32.5 meters (35.0 – 2.5 = 32.5) which corresponds to 3.25 bar of pressure, ideal performance for creating an irrigation system.
We have searched for a pump that has the desired pressure and flow-values in the central area of the performance curve (highlighted in gray), this is because efficiency is better and the pump works optimally.