HANGGE centrifugal pump

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What are the types of pumps and situations of use?

There are many types of pumps as there are different types of use.

We try to identify those that interest us.

  • Pumps for rainwater recovery tanks
  • Pumps for artesian wells to use groundwater
  • Booster pump to increase the mains water pressure

What types of pumps are used for rainwater harvesting?

Harvesting rainwater and then reusing it for field irrigation is a smart way to use resources.

This practice is becoming increasingly common in irrigation systems and is encouraged by many municipalities.

To draw the water from the recovery tank, we can use an immersion pump or a surface pump of our choice.

No particularly high-performance pumps are needed as the head required is generally modest 30 – 40 meters.

Personally, I recommend you to use a submersible pump to be installed directly in the tank.

Which pump to use for high performance?

Pumps for artesian wells are high-performance pumps, capable of lifting groundwater from depths that generally range from 40 to 90 meters.

They are multi-impeller pumps.

In some areas, the aquifer is not very deep and gives a lot of water, of excellent quality, all year round.

For this reason, it may be convenient to have an artesian well built, after the initial expense for drilling, you will always have a large availability of water for irrigation.

What is the easiest way to increase the pressure in the irrigation system?

Connecting a booster pump directly to the water pipe arriving from the aqueduct allows increasing the pressure of the aqueduct water.

I state that this operation is forbidden by the company that manages the network to avoid stealing water from other users.

That said, you must use the most appropriate pump for this purpose and it must be a single impeller centrifugal pump.

How to proceed, to size the pump first you need to know the available flow rate and the pressure, at the connection where we have to connect the pump.

The pump works in accumulation, which means that the pressure generated by the pump adds to the pressure present in the pipeline entering the pump and the two pressures add up.

Let’s take a practical example

My sprinkler system is malfunctioning due to too low pressure.

The sprinklers struggle to rise and the jets of water are short and limp.

We decide to solve the problem by installing a booster pump upstream of our irrigation system.

From the supply pipe, we have a flow rate of 55 l / min and a pressure of 1.5 bars.

We decide to use an immersion pump whose operating curve shows us that at 55 l / min it develops a delivery head of 25 meters, which will allow us to have

(1.5 + 2.5) = 4 bar pressure in our irrigation system, which works very well this way.

What type of agricultural pump can be used both submerged and above ground?

The Steel pumps of the up / down water series have a particular characteristic that differentiates them from other pumps on the market, thanks to their particular construction they can work as normal surface pumps but also as submersible pumps IP68, this feature allows us to use the pump in any environment, as a submersible pump inside a tank but also inside a well or in a closed room.

This type of pump is identified with the UP / DOWN Water symbol which indicates that the pump, thanks to this technology, can be installed both submerged and on the surface, without the need for additional accessories.

One of the main problems, when you want to install a booster pump to increase the pressure of the irrigation system, is where to install it. In most cases, it must be placed in the garden before the solenoid valves by intercepting the water supply pipe.

Using a normal centrifugal pump installed in a sump is not recommended, it is dangerous and the pump would last a maximum of one season.

1- What type of water pump is best suited in aquaculture?

In aquaculture, the most frequently used pumps are centrifugal pumps.

However, depending on the use, other lifting machines can complete the previous range: these are the volumetric pumps.

In these pumps, a volume of water is trapped in an enclosure and transported from suction to discharge.

So, let’s go now to the discovery of the different types of volumetric pumps used in aquaculture.

Why use the simple Archimedean screw lifting machines?

These machines, among the oldest, have capacities that fill by immersion in a low tank and lift the liquid mass until it is poured into a high tank.

The liquid mass is always maintained at atmospheric pressure.

The axis of the screw is tilted to keep the water trapped between the support and its propeller.

These machines allow the elevation of high flow rates (2 m3 / s) at low elevation heights (a few meters), with low power. Their yield is around 65%.

Why use reciprocating piston pumps?

A piston moves in a cylinder, animated by a rectilinear reciprocating movement.

Valves regulate the inlet and outlet of water inside the pump body.

The pump is driven by a rotary motor.

The rotary motion of the engine is transformed into reciprocating motion by a connecting rod-crank system.

The single-acting pump delivers only during one of the two strokes of the piston.

The speed of the piston varying from 0 to 0 passing through a maximum, the flow rate varies in the same direction as a function of time.

The irregular operation of the single-acting pump leads to the use of double-acting pumps, the piston working on each face alternately on the suction and discharge.

The average flow rate is then double that of the same pump operating in a single effect. This is part of the pumps that can be used in aquaculture.

Why use the diaphragm pump?

Diaphragm pumps are pumps in which the piston is replaced by a diaphragm.

However, the diaphragm is attached to the walls of a tank.

The central part of the membrane is fixed to a rod which moves in a reciprocating rectilinear movement.

The variation in the volume of the tank generates a variation in pressure.

Piston pumps are sturdy materials.

Their slow speed results in low wear of the various components.

They have good efficiency which does not vary with the delivery height.

They are useful for small flow rates and high pressures.

On the other hand, their mechanical construction is complex.

They require careful maintenance.

They require a high torque when starting.

Their cost is usually higher than that of centrifugal pumps.

Why use rotary vane pumps?

The principle of operation of these machines is to ensure the variation of a capacity by the continuous movement of a member called a rotor driven by a circular movement.

There is no direct communication between suction and delivery.

The continuous movement of the rotor avoids the inertia forces to be overcome in the reciprocating movement.

Vane pumps consist of a cylinder in which a smaller diameter cylinder rotates, the axis of which is eccentric with respect to that of the pump body.

In the cylinder-rotor, grooves house the vanes pushed outwards by a spring, so that these vanes follow the wall of the pump body.

Thus, the rotation of the rotor leads to the creation of successive capacities, the volume of which begins by increasing (suction) and then decreases (discharge).

Rotary roller pumps consist of a cylinder and an eccentric rotor.

This rotor is composed of a core having fingers.

The rotation causes a succession of capacities sealed by cylindrical rubber rollers applied to the wall by centrifugal force.

The variation of the volume of each capacity ensures the entrainment of the liquid.

Rotary gear pumps (or pinions) have two special pinions meshing with each other, rotating around two parallel axes, in opposite directions from each other, in a pump body communicating on the one hand with the suction, on the other hand with repression.

Why use peristaltic pumps?

A flexible tube is trapped in a semi-cylindrical enclosure and a rotor serving as an external piston crushes this tube.

A water capacity is thus trapped between the two ends of the rotor.

The rotation drives this volume from suction to discharge.

These rotary pumps prime automatically.

Their flow rate, independent of the lifting height, is proportional to the speed of rotation, therefore depending only on the power of the motor and the resistance of the components.

All these positive displacement pumps are used more in the laboratory, because of their low flow rates.

2- Why centrifugal pumps are used more in aquaculture and agriculture?

In this category, we will go a little deeper to understand why it is important to use centrifugal pumps in aquaculture and agriculture.

What is the description of the centrifugal pump?

To better understand the importance of the use of the centrifugal pump in the field of aquaculture and agriculture, we will try to see some description of it.

A centrifugal pump or turbo-pump is made up of:

  • a distributor, a kind of profiled tubing which conducts the water from the suction pipe in the axis of the pump, called ” hearing “,
  • of an impeller or rotor provided with vanes around its periphery and rotating inside a pump body.
  • This wheel wedged on the drive shaft communicates the kinetic energy received from the motor to the water,
  • from a diffuser or snail extending into a cone (or diverging) towards the delivery pipe.
  • The role of this diffuser is to slow down the flow of water to transform the kinetic energy of the liquid into pressure.
  • It can be smooth or fitted with fins.

The water enters through the center of the wheel and leaves through the periphery, describing a centrifugal trajectory hence the name given to these machines.

In fact, this name is incorrect. Indeed, there are pumps operating obeying the same laws and in which the general trajectory of the liquid streams tends to become parallel to the axis: the movement corresponds to that of a propeller, hence the name of propeller pumps.

Centrifugal force, therefore, plays no role in the operation of these latter machines.

For these reasons, the expression “turbo-pumps” would be better chosen.

Nevertheless, we will keep the term “centrifugal pumps” established by usage.

How to understand the characteristics and coupling of pumps?

Let us recall the characteristics at a constant speed which give, as a function of the flow rate, the height collected HMT (total manometric head), the power on the shaft P, and the efficiency r.

These curves are used to determine the operating point of a centrifugal pump knowing its speed and the characteristics of the network (diameter, length, and nature of the pipes).

They are supplied by the manufacturer.

Two identical pumps can be coupled in parallel, the pressure or height collected remains the same but the flow rate changes without doubling.

The coupling of two pumps in series passes the water leaving the first turbine to the center of the second. The flow remains unchanged. On the other hand, the delivery head is approximately multiplied by the number of stages, except for pressure drops: pumps with several turbines are called multi-stage or multi-stage.

The yield curve helps guide the choice of power.

We should not simply say to ourselves that a machine with a power much greater than that necessary, capable of the most will be able to do the least.

If a pump is built to ensure a flow Q at a pressure P with maximum efficiency, any use modifying Q and P (reduction of flow rate by closing a control valve) decreases the efficiency. The energy consumed per m3 pumped out becomes more expensive. It is, therefore, necessary to define the flow rate and the height of elevation in order to choose the right pump.

What are the different types of centrifugal pumps to be used for each need?

Here we will discuss the different types of pumps according to the number of wheels; the shape of the wheels and the position of the axle.

According to the number of impellers:

The single-stage pump has one impeller, the multistage pump has several impellers (series coupling).

The latter type is used when, for the same flow, it is desired to increase the delivery head.

According to the shape of the impellers:

In the pure centrifugal type pump, the speed of the water at the outlet is in a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation.

This type of pump is suitable for low flow rates and high delivery heights.

In the propeller pump (propeller pump), the speed tends to be parallel to the axis of rotation and the water describes a helical surface.

This type of pump is suitable for large flow rates with reduced lifting heights.

In the helical-centrifugal pump, the speed of the water at the outlet is inclined on the axis of rotation.

Pumps of this type are suitable for characteristics intermediate to those indicated above.

According to the position of the axis

The horizontal axis pump is driven by a motor placed next to it.

It is used for surface revisions (Fig. N ° 18a).

This pump is installed, either in load on a pumping tank or on the water itself if the pumping station is underground, or in suction.

The centrifugal pump of the standard type does not prime by itself: its suction pipe must be full of water. Two solutions are used:

  • The installation of a foot valve at the strainer preventing, after stopping the pump, the emptying of the water column.
  • The creation of an automatic priming system, for example, using a vacuum pump.

The latter sucks in the air and the pipe fills with water.

The vertical shaft pump allows the pump to be lowered into the water thus avoiding priming faults.

However, the pump should not be exaggeratedly moved away from its motor.

The solution is not economical and the risks of axis vibration increase.

A variant of this pump is the motor-pump unit immersed in water.

The priming problems are solved as well as the engine cooling problems.

A major drawback lies in maintaining the water tightness of the motor (the seal between the pump and the motor, the seal at the entry of the electric cable)

3- What are radial or pure centrifugal pumps used in aquaculture and agriculture?

The centrifugal force imparted by the vanes to the liquid particles propels them outward in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the moving body.

The trajectory of liquid particles is a component of centrifugal force and axial force.

Why use submerged pumps with securing wheels?

These pumps have a conventional channel impeller at the inlet of which a steel crusher cone is attached. The latter rotates in front of knives fixed inside the pump body.

This arrangement allows the clean cut of the solids and considerably reduces the risk of clogging.

These pumps are used for:

* pumping loaded water containing algae and plant debris.

* pumping of waste from the fish packaging industry.

Why use channel submersible pumps channel and horizontal single-stage surface pumps?

Pumps are used for pumping and recycling lightly loaded and screened water.

The wheel consists of 2 or 3 channels.

Horizontal single-stage surface pumps

This model is designed for pumping clear, clean, non-aggressive, and non-explosive liquids, without solid or fibrous particles.

These pumps are not self-priming and have an axial suction port, a radial discharge port, and a horizontal shaft.

Flow rate: 2,000 m3 / h max

Manometric head: 150 m CE max

Liquid temperature: -40 ° C to + 160 ° C

Operating pressure: 10 bars or 16 bars

Inlet pressure: 9 bars maximum, 7 bars maximum for pumps with an impeller diameter of 400 mm or more.

Why use multistage surface pumps?

This category of pumps can achieve flow rates of up to 120 m3 / h. They are resistant to high pressures, easy to maintain, they are used either for:

  • Water supplies
  • Industry and water treatment, industrial processes, food processing, etc.
  • Irrigation

This type of pump offers excellent suction performance; they are specially designed to convey water slightly loaded with sand or solid particles which could damage other types of pumps.

This performance is mainly linked to tungsten carbide bearings.

Also, they are designed to restart safely even after long periods of shutdown.

They have O-ring seals to withstand large temperature variations as well as a flexible connection system for quick installations.

4- What is the use of axial or propeller pumps in aquaculture and agriculture?

The liquid particles are projected axially by describing a path along with a cylinder of revolution and parallel to the axis of the pump.

So let’s discover the different types of propeller pumps.

Why use Propeller pumps ?

Pumps are characterized by the rotation of a propeller in a tube.

By its profiling, this propeller creates in its lower part a depression and an overpressure in its upper part: the water is thus set in motion.

These pumps include:

A head: frame supporting the assembly of the pump when the motor is mounted.

A column: more or less long depending on the height to be pumped, this column comprises a flanged tube serving as a discharge pipe, a transmission shaft, and a guide bearing.

A body: placed at the end of the transmission, it is composed of a fixed-blade propeller and a diffuser with rectifying vanes.

Propeller pumps deliver large quantities of water (several hundred to several thousand m3 / h) at very low heights (a few meters).

The yields achieved are excellent (60 to 75%).

They are perfectly suited to pond aquaculture because of their ease of installation and maintenance because the mechanisms are simple and by their versatility of use (water supply, recycling, mixing).

Several devices exist:

  • vertical axis (standard model,
  • vertical axis (electric pump submersible propeller short shaft compact)
  • motors
  • submerged
  • horizontal axis (agitator – accelerator, be used to create a stream of water or recirculation)

Why use large pump propeller speed?

These pumps are designed for very low heights, variable flow rates, very low energy consumption, and high efficiency: 500 m3 / h at 2.30 m = 4.2 kW

The diameter of the available propellers varies from 180 to 500 mm.

The flow rate is 150 to 2800 m3 / h for heights of 40 cm to 6 m.

The pump body is designed and manufactured according to each particular use.

Why use borehole pumps?

A complete range of submersible pumps and motors with a range of flow rates between 0 and 250 m3 / h with very high efficiency. These pumps are made of stainless steel, thus offering high abrasion resistance and minimal risk of corrosion when pumping clean water. Some models offer more resistant steel allowing the pumping of more aggressive liquids or even slightly polluted such as oils.

Remote monitoring provides electronic protection for 50 Hz and 60 Hz motors, equipment, cables, and junctions (current up to 400 A). This check protects the pump against dry running, overload, closed valve operation, freezing of the pipes, and other risks that could damage it.

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